For Black Panther, director Ryan Coogler "wanted to make it a priority to use Xhosa as much as possible" in the script, and provided dialect coaches for the film's actors. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. 1. No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal. The Xhosa vocabulary is the backbone for learning. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. [16], The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. It has 18 click consonants (in comparison, Juǀ'hoan, spoken in Botswana and Namibia, has 48, and Taa, with roughly 4,000 speakers in Botswana, has 83). Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953. It has been a language that has existed in the southeastern African area for hundreds of years, since before the 16th century. People also like. How difficult is it to learn Xhosa? When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. The onset cluster /kl/ from phonologized loanwords such as, The unwritten glottal stop is present in words like, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 14:01. Several radio stations and one TV station broadcast in Xhosa. Additional phonemes are using sequences of multiple letters. l(. Clans are groups of families with different surnames but sharing one clan name. [11] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum of variously mutually intelligible varieties. The South African Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts in Xhosa on both radio (on Umhlobo Wenene FM) and television, and films, plays and music are also produced in the language. Prenasalisation occurs in several contexts, including on roots with the class 9 prefix /iN-/, for example on an adjective which is feature-matching its noun: /iN- + ɬɛ/ → [intɬɛ] "beautiful" (of a class 9 word like inja "dog"). Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. © 2014 - 2021. As of 2003[update] approximately 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). They refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and their language as Xhosa. That is, da may be pronounced [dʱa̤] (or, equivalently, [d̥a̤]). Xhosa belongs, with Zulu and northern (Zimbabwe) Ndebele, to the ‘Zunda’ branch of the Nguni languages—all of which are mutually intelligible, or very close to being so. 1 Before monosyllabic stems, e.g. isandla/izandla (hand/hands). Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops. As in other Bantu languages, nouns in Xhosa are classified into morphological classes, or genders (15 in Xhosa), with different prefixes for both singular and plural. It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click.[10]. The term “Xhosa” can be used both to refer to the language and its native speakers, known as Xhosa people of South Africa. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953.[12]. Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. Below are some common words and sentences in Xhosa. The current national anthem of South Africa, starts with the first two lines in Xhosa, with the next two lines translated into Zulu but almost identical to the Xhosa version. Xhosa is spoken by 7.6 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. Approximately 18% of the South African population speaks Xhosa. We start with commonly used numbers. Various parts of speech that qualify a noun must agree with the noun according to its gender. MustGo.com. On this page you will find the solution to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue crossword clue. The inventory is taken from Wikipedia. If you have any other question or need extra help, please feel free to contact us or … Xhosa verbs are highly inflected. There is a series of six dental clicks, represented by the letter ⟨c⟩, similar to the sound represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk"; a series of six alveolar lateral clicks, represented by the letter ⟨x⟩, similar to the sound used to call horses; and a series of alveolar clicks, represented by the letter ⟨q⟩, that sound somewhat like a cork pulled from a bottle. Xhosa is an agglutinative language that expresses grammatical functions by adding prefixes and suffixes to roots. Xhosa, a group of mostly related peoples living primarily in Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Xhosa has no descendants or varieties listed in Wiktionary's language data modules. Overview. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons. At present, Xhosa is used as the main language of instruction in many primary schools and some secondary schools, but is largely replaced by English after the early primary grades, even in schools mainly serving Xhosa-speaking communities. In addition to the Xhosa proper, for whom the entire group was named, As a result, South Africa is known to be the native land of the Xhosa folk. In 1996[update], the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%.[16]. All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. ; Category:Xhosa entry maintenance: Xhosa entries, or entries in other languages containing Xhosa terms, that are being tracked for … Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant. Tone, stress and vowel length are not indicated. The Xhosa language is a Niger-Congo language, of the Bantu language branch. The main tribes are the Mpondo, Mpondomise, Bomvana, Xesibe, and Thembu. Fricatives become affricates. Simply click on the clue posted on New York Times Crossword on February 3 2019 and we will present you with the correct answer. Here is the answer for: Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue answers, solutions for the popular game New York Times Crossword. However, not all noun classes can be so easily defined. Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. Ever since Xhosa and Zulu were reduced to a written form in the early 19th century, Xhosa and Zulu writers have produced various works of fiction, ranging from poetry to novels. [16], Called isiXhosa sengingqi ('local Xhosa'), Xhosa has several dialects. [22] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. The Xhosa are a people of South Africa . Xhosa has an inventory of ten vowels: [a], [ɛ~e], [i], [ɔ~o] and [u] written a, e, i, o and u in order, all occurring in both long and short. On this page will find the solution to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue. Xhosa, along with Zulu and other indigenous languages of South Africa, has been a source of many words that were borrowed by South African English and that do not occur in other varieties of English in other parts of the world. (eds), These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals, "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language", "isiNdebele for beginners. The more notable characteristic is their depressor effect on the tone of the syllable.[21]. The word order is subject–verb–object, like in English. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. The following table gives an overview of Xhosa noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. In addition, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language as medium of teaching at school. Release of the forward closure results in a pop-like sound. Xhosa nouns belong to 17 different classes, roughly based on semantic categories, e.g., there are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. I must admit that this clue is not so easy. The following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, with the pronunciation in IPA on the left and the orthography on the right: In addition to the ejective affricate [tʃʼ], the spelling tsh may also be used for either of the aspirated affricates [tsʰ] and [tʃʰ]. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, clicks are represented by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation to the left of a symbol for a nonclick sound at the same place of articulation. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. 15% of its vocabulary is estimated to be of Khoekhoe (Khoisan) origin. Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. When plain voiceless clicks (c, x, q) are prenasalized, they become slack voiced nasal (ngc, ngx, ngq). Hlubi is the dialect in the former Ciskei; there is the more distinct Hlubi language further north, where Xhosa meets SeSotho. Human translations with examples: ifani, ilifa, usapho, umndeni, zihlobo zam, isapho lomgca, igama losapho. Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks. As an example, the composition of the verb In the sentence Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ama-nzi ‘One child drinks water’ is shown below. Marking of the plural number depends on the noun class. Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Xhosa. Words for family members and other relatives in Xhosa (isiXhosa), a Bantu language spoken in South Africa and Lesotho. The movie shows the Xhosa tradition of ulwaluko, it is told from the perspective of a homosexual Xhosa man. Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. (7) You are asked to encourage as many of your friends and family to donate blood. Photo by Pixabay.com. Originally inhabited by those who referred to themselves as the amaXhosa tribe, and who called the language itself isiXhosa, the language has taken on much influence from the surrounding countries and languages. Clicks It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. Family words in Xhosa. It is closely related to Zulu, Swati, and Ndebele. iliso (eye), uluhlu (list). The language is also studied as a subject. [23], Proportion of the South African population that speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic. In southern Africa, they came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (. Clans make up tribes and tribes make up nations. isiXhosa is a member of the "Nguni" language group, and is most closely related to isiZulu, isiNdebele and SiSwati.. isiXhosa (Xhosa) language family tree. Are you having trouble finding the answers to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu clue of the New York Times Crossword? The Xhosa are the second largest cultural group in South Africa, after the Zulu-speaking nation. All rights reserved. Henry Hare Dugmore helped translate the entire Bible in Xhosa language. John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (Ethnologue). [12] It is the second most common Bantu home language in South Africa as a whole. It is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. The red letters are orthographic representations of the sounds. Top 10 Sites to watch Telugu Movies Online in Hd Quality. 4. Only phonemic, and thus reflected orthographically, for. Implosive consonants The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa . This came about because South African actor John Kani, a native of the Eastern Cape province who plays Wakandan King T'Chaka, is Xhosa and suggested that the directors of the fictional Civil War incorporate a dialogue in the language. The Xhosa nation is made up of tribes and clans. Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/[5][6][7] (Xhosa: [ᵏǁʰɔsa]),[missing tone] also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa. The language is also rich in idioms. Palatalisation is a change that affects labial consonants whenever they are immediately followed by /j/. Many Xhosa also live in and around Cape Town , one of South Africa’s capital cities. Implosive consonants are produced by inhaling rather than exhaling the air. Xhosa Language. Vowels can be either short or long. Below we picked 70% of the most commonly used words. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. Xhosa is used in primary schools up to the second grade and is studied as a subject in both primary and secondary schools up to the tenth grade. There are 7,907,153 (17.64 %) first language speakers [2001 census data]. Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives come after the noun they modify. Breathy-voiced consonants are produced when the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal voicing, but are held further apart, so that a volume of air escapes between them. [8][9] Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. Xhosa lesson by Nelson Sebezela, guide for Calabash Tours in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, interviewed by Patrick Leighton. It is also spoken in Botswana and Lesotho. Below is a table of Xhosa consonants. Contextual translation of "my family" into Xhosa. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. They are marked with a raised /ʱ/. This post first appeared on Daily Crossword Solver, please read the originial post: here. Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis (plain) stops. The Xhosa language employs 26 letters from the Latin alphabet. Therefore memorizing them will give you a 70% boost in the language. Privacy Policy Xhosa (/ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/, Xhosa pronunciation: [ˈǁʰɔsa ]) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants and is one of the official languages of South Africa. As a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. Xhosa Vocabulary. 2 is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. ; Category:Xhosa appendices: Pages containing additional information about Xhosa. Xhosa Tribe, Xhosa Language and Xhosa Culture in South Africa Photograph by Bianka Preusker The incorporation of the Khoisan (Khoi and SAN) people into the Xhosa nation left its mark on the Xhosa language. Well your search ends here, because our team have found all the answers to today’s New York Times crossword. [12][13], Xhosa is the most widely distributed African language in South Africa, though the most widely spoken African language is Zulu. This is the smarter way of online learning. / Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. It shows the journey to manhood, and documents the ins and outs of the… Aarons & Reynolds, 2003, "South African Sign Language", in Monaghan, ed., The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe. 2. Verbs use the following prefixes for the subject and object: The following is a list of phrases that can be used when one visits a region whose primary language is Xhosa: Xhosa-speaking people have inhabited coastal regions of southeastern Africa since before the 16th century. 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