Soon settlers began migrating north from Mexico. The world's first Atomic Bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945 on the White Sands Testing Range near Alamogordo. SANTA FE – A New Mexico legislator who was known for his advocacy in protecting people who are incapacitated and placed under legal guardianship has … And to the same Divine Author of every good and perfect gift [James 1:17] we are indebted for all Interstate 10 travels in the southwest portion of New Mexico starting from the Arizona stateline near Lordsburg to the area in between Las Cruces and Anthony, near El Paso, Texas. As early as the 1980s, former Governor Toney Anaya proposed building a high-speed rail line connecting the two cities with New Mexico's major cities. In 1821, Mexico gained its independence from Spain, and New Mexico came under Mexican control. [184], Silver City, in the southwestern mountains of the state, was originally a mining town, and at least one nearby mine still operates. The section of the line running south to Belen is served less frequently. One out of three families in New Mexico speak Spanish at home. The two groups struggled for power and the future of the territory. Religion in New Mexico: 77% Christian (41% Catholic, 35% Protestant), 19% No Religion, 4% LDS, 1% Other Religions. First published in Their entire army was captured and jailed by the Hispanic New Mexico militia. [138] With the decline of most intercity rail service in the United States in the late 1960s, New Mexico was left with minimal services. The United States Congress admitted New Mexico as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. [60] In 2008, New Mexico had the highest percentage (47%) of Hispanics (of any race) of any state,[60] with 83% native-born and 17% foreign-born.[74]. ", "Without morals a republic cannot subsist any length of time; they therefore who are decrying the Christian religion, Hatch is known as the "Green Chile capital of the world". In August, the city hosts the annual Santa Fe Indian Market, which is the oldest and largest juried Native American art showcase in the world. At 7,198 feet above sea level, Santa Fe is the highest capital city in the United States. The largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico, Chicanos, and Mexicans. The City of Las Cruces, in southern New Mexico, has a museum system affiliated with the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program. MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Among the new cardinals formally installed by Pope Francis on Saturday is an outspoken Mexican cleric who has spent decades ministering to … Terms for both the governor and lieutenant governor expire in January 2023. It became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. It wanted to control lands needed for the right-of-way to encourage construction of a transcontinental railroad. [95] As of April 2012[update], the state's unemployment rate was 7.2%. Additionally, more than 8,000 men from New Mexico Territory served in the Union Army.[46]. New Mexico's statewide average precipitation is 12.9 inches (330 mm) a year, with average monthly amounts peaking in the summer, as at Albuquerque, and Las Cruces in the south. Turquoise is the stone of choice in New Mexico, the black-speckled or striped blue is popular among locals and tourists alike. The mountainous Mogollon Plateau in the west-central of the state and southern Rocky Mountains in the north-central, have a wide range in elevation (4,000 to 13,000 ft or 1,200 to 4,000 m), with vegetation types corresponding to elevation gradients, such as piñon-juniper woodlands near the base, through evergreen conifers, spruce-fir and aspen forests, Krummholz, and alpine tundra. [136]:110 No fewer than 100 railroads of various names and lineage have operated in the jurisdiction at some point. New Mexico residents may purchase any firearm deemed legal under federal law. [143]:115 The streamliner Super Chief, a favorite of early Hollywood stars, was one of the most famous named trains in the United States and one of the most esteemed for its luxury and exoticness—train cars were named for regional Native American tribes and outfitted with the artwork of many local artists—but also for its speed: as few as 39 hours 45 minutes westbound.[142]. [167] Los Alamos County has the highest number percent of post secondary degree holders of any county in New Mexico with 38.7% of the population (4,899 persons) estimated by the 2010-2014 American Community Survey.[168]. Los Angeles Times, New Mexico turns a corner on drunk driving, July 7, 2009, by Kate Linthicum, U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-2: New Mexico Public Road Length, Miles by Ownership 2000, U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-1: New Mexico Public Road Length, by Functional System, U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-5: Highway Bridge Condition: 2001, U.S. Department of Transportation Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Table 1-9: Freight Railroads in New Mexico and the United States: 2000, UP Aerospace does launches 'quickly and cheaply', DenverBiz Journal, October 2008, Le Nouveau-Mexique abolit la peine de mort [archive] in Le Monde of March 19, 2009, "High Hopes: Altitude Training for Swimmers", by Michael Scott, magazine archives, The lesser coat of arms of France as used by the, El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro National Historic Trail, Manhattan Project National Historical Park, Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Kasha-Katuwe Tent Rocks National Monument, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Provisional Government of Mexico (1823–24), La Villa Real de la Santa Fe de San Francisco de Asís, Francisco Fernández de la Cueva, 10th Duke of Alburquerque, U.S. provisional government of New Mexico, New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War, Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War, List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union, List of settlements in New Mexico by population, New Mexico locations by per capita income, List of census-designated places in New Mexico, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Speed limits in the United States by jurisdiction § New Mexico, Category:Bus transportation in New Mexico, Learn how and when to remove this template message, List of colleges and universities in New Mexico, New Mexico State University at Las Cruces, New Mexico Institute of Mining & Technology at Socorro, Eastern New Mexico University at Portales, New Mexico Highlands University at Las Vegas, Western New Mexico University at Silver City, New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, National Museum of Nuclear Science & History, "United States Summary: 2010—Population and Housing Unit Counts", "Elevations and Distances in the United States", "Most spoken languages in New Mexico in 2010", "Is New Mexico a State? A reputation for lawlessness developed in New Mexico because of the Lincoln County War, a range war between merchants and cattlemen from 1878 to 1881, and the emergence of outlaws such as William H. Bonney, known as Billy the Kid. New Mexico holds strong to its Spanish heritage. The roads don't wash away. The 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. [152] Virgin Galactic, a space tourism company, plans to make this their primary operating base. [187] Las Cruces also has a variety of cultural and artistic opportunities for residents and visitors.[188]. There have been some big changes in the Mexican culture over the last few decades. [185] Another former mining town turned art haven is Madrid, New Mexico. The Great Plains (High Plains) are in eastern New Mexico, similar to the Colorado high plains in eastern Colorado. New Mexico has seven National Forests including the nation’s largest, 3.3 million acre Gila National Forest which includes White Sands National Monument is a desert, not of sand, but of gleaming white gypsum crystals. [148] The Sunset Limited is the successor to the Southern Pacific Railroad's train of the same name and operates exclusively on Union Pacific trackage in New Mexico. Archdiocese of Santa Fe, New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. According to Washington Times, New Mexico has more Ph.D.s per capita than any other state, mostly due to the many government and private research facilities that call the state home. [178] Albuquerque also has the unique and memorable KiMo Theater built in 1927 in the Pueblo Revival Style architecture. Known as "the City Different," Santa Fe showcases a mix of Hispanic, Anglo and Native American cultures. Due to its relatively low population, in combination with numerous federally funded research facilities, New Mexico had the highest concentration of PhD holders of any state in 2000. The result is tender bites of spicy, meaty goodness. Normally, the provider or seller passes the tax on to the purchaser, however legal incidence and burden apply to the business, as an excise tax. leading industries. Among U.S. states, New Mexico has the highest percentage of Hispanic ancestry, at 47% (as of July 1, 2012). [98] The Permian and San Juan Basins, which are located partly in New Mexico, account for some of these natural resources. Tewa, the Tiwa languages, and Towa belong to the Kiowa-Tanoan language family, and thus all descend from a common ancestor. The Pueblos. [150][153], The Constitution of New Mexico established New Mexico's governmental structure. When Lew Wallace served as territorial Governor, he wrote the popular historical novel Ben-Hur. How you can escape the conclusion that makes a requirement with respect to an Indian as a qualification to exercise the elective franchise and does not make that requirement with respect to the member of any race is beyond me.[49]. Navajo Code Talkers. Almost half of New Mexicans claim Hispanic origin; many are descendants of colonial settlers called Hispanos or Neomexicanos. [50] The Midwest State No. [135], A commuter rail operation, the New Mexico Rail Runner Express, connects the state's capital, its largest city, and other communities. The National Hispanic Cultural Center has held hundreds of performing arts events, art showcases, and other events related to Spanish culture in New Mexico and worldwide in the centerpiece Roy E Disney Center for the Performing Arts or in other venues at the 53 acre facility. Currently, both chambers of the New Mexico State Legislature have Democratic majorities. [37]:52, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado assembled an enormous expedition at Compostela in 1540–1542 to explore and find the mythical Seven Golden Cities of Cibola as described by Fray Marcos de Niza. New Mexico's strong Spanish, Native American, and Wild West frontier motifs have provided material for many authors in the state, including internationally recognized Rudolfo Anaya and Tony Hillerman. Whittington Center Shooting Range in New Mexico Caters to All in the Middle of Nowhere", Bureau of Business and Economic Research (BBER), New Mexico State Guide from the Library of Congress, Energy Profile for New Mexico: economic, environmental, and energy data, Flora of the Gila National Forest in New Mexico, List of National Natural Landmarks in New Mexico, Spanish involvement in the American Revolutionary War, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (Yucatán conquistador), Francisco Hernández de Córdoba (founder of Nicaragua), Indigenous people during De Soto's travels,, States and territories established in 1912, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Articles with dead external links from June 2012, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Pages using infobox settlement with possible demonym list, Pages using infobox settlement with no coordinates, Articles with disputed statements from February 2017, Pages using bar box without float left or float right, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from July 2009, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2000, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2001, Articles needing additional references from January 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing potentially dated statements from November 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2015, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Organ Mountains—Desert Peaks National Monument near Las Cruces. [37]:136, New Mexico played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. As a part of New Spain, the claims for the province of New Mexico passed to independent Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. Among the more notable authors were: Angélico Chávez, Nina Otero-Warren, Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, Aurelio Espinosa, Cleofas Jaramillo, Juan Bautista Rael, and Aurora Lucero-White Lea. When the boundary was fixed, a surveyor's error awarded the Permian Basin to the State of Texas. As early as 1878, the ATSF promoted tourism in the region with emphasis on Native American imagery. The Anglo-Americans tended to have more ties to the territorial governor and judges, who were appointed by officials out of the region. It is perhaps better known now as the home of or exhibition center for large numbers of artists, visual and otherwise. The first bomb was tested at Trinity site in the desert between Socorro and Alamogordo on what is now White Sands Missile Range.[37]:179–180. [129] In that same year there were 1,003 miles (1,614 km) of freeways, of which a thousand were the route miles of Interstate Highways 10, 25 and 40. This means individuals on New Mexico's Death Row can still be executed. [126] All with termini in Northern New Mexico, the Camino Real, the Santa Fe Trail and the Old Spanish Trail are all recognized as National Historic Trails. [174], Zimmerman Library at The University of New Mexico, Zuhl Library at New Mexico State University, Walkway outside Golden Library at Eastern New Mexico University, Donnelly Library at New Mexico Highlands University, With a Native American population of 134,000 in 1990,[175] New Mexico ranks as an important center of Native American culture. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" applied to various configurations of a former U.S. New Mexico Territory and, even prior to its former Mexican territorial status, a former provincial kingdom of New Spain called Nuevo México, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. The Southwest Chief is the successor to the Super Chief and El Capitan. When the Louisiana Territory was admitted as a state in 1812, the U.S. reclassified it as part of the Missouri Territory. There are natural wonders and deserts spread throughout the state as well as unique museums, such as one focusing on aliens. the Japanese could not understand. those who do not pay taxes cannot vote. Olympic gold medalist Tom Jager, who is an advocate of controversial high-altitude training for swimming, has conducted training camps in Albuquerque at 5,312 feet (1,619 m) and Los Alamos at 7,320 feet (2,231 m). Many of the federal jobs relate to the military; the state hosts three air force bases (Kirtland Air Force Base, Holloman Air Force Base, and Cannon Air Force Base); a testing range (White Sands Missile Range); and an army proving ground (Fort Bliss's McGregor Range). Albuquerque is known for its Native American and southwestern heritage. on, we must defend ourselves. In 2000 the value of oil and gas produced was $8.2 billion,[99] and in 2006, New Mexico accounted for 3.4% of the crude oil, 8.5% of the dry natural gas, and 10.2% of the natural gas liquids produced in the United States. (Only its conventional "trigger" detonated.)[55][56]. There are no waiting periods under state law for picking up a firearm after it has been purchased, and there are no restrictions on magazine capacity. Smokey Bear was invented in New Mexico after the Capitan Gap … [135] In addition to local railroads and other tourist lines, the state jointly owns and operates a heritage narrow-gauge steam railroad, the Cumbres and Toltec Scenic Railway, with the state of Colorado. [37]:109 The Republic of Texas claimed the portion east of the Rio Grande when it seceded from Mexico in 1836 when it incorrectly assumed the older Hispanic settlements of the upper Rio Grande were the same as the newly established Mexican settlements of Texas. The first gold strike in the Old West was made by Jose Ortiz in 1832 south of Santa Fe. Mexican-American) population. [20] The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel. we must try to extinguish it.". Alternative Title: Land of Enchantment New Mexico, constituent state of the United States of America. New Mexico loses extreme northern-most section to the new territory 1862 - February 12 - Battles of Velarde de and Glorieta Pass fought, ends confederate occupation of New Mexico. See Mimbres culture. [105][106][107][108], Federal government spending is a major driver of the New Mexico economy. [37]:37 Oñate extended El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, Royal Road of the Interior, by 700 miles (1,100 km) from Santa Bárbara, Chihuahua, to his remote colony. feet above sea level, making the bottom an equivalent of nearly 100 feet of depth in the ocean. [172] In Arizona and New Mexico, veterans challenged state laws or practices prohibiting them from voting. [154], Current Governor Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) and Lieutenant Governor Howie Morales (D) were first elected in 2018. [49] Judge Phillips wrote: Any other citizen, regardless of race, in the State of New Mexico who has not paid one cent of tax of any kind or character, if he possesses the other qualifications, may vote. Due to their geographic locations, northern and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate. The executive branch of government is fragmented as outlined in the state constitution. We have reviews of the best places to see in New Mexico. The largest chamber of Carlsbad Caverns is more than 10 football [136]:8–11, New Mexico is served by two class I railroads, the BNSF Railway and the Union Pacific Railroad. Old Town is the cultural center of Albuquerque with its charming shops and abundance of dining options. For the state, 23.9% of people over 25 have gone to college but not earned a degree. They used the Navajo language in code to send messages Although Congress passed a law in 1924 that granted all Native Americans U.S. citizenship, as well as the right to vote in federal and state elections, New Mexico was among several states with Jim Crow laws, e.g. Where is Carlsbad, New Mexico? The executive is composed of the governor and other statewide elected officials including the lieutenant governor (elected on the same ticket as the governor), attorney general, secretary of state, state auditor, state treasurer, and commissioner of public lands. [36]:19 Later inhabitants include American Indians of the Mogollon and Ancestral Pueblo peoples cultures. Declines in passenger revenue, but not necessarily ridership, prompted many railroads to turn over their passenger services in truncated form to Amtrak, a state owned enterprise. Since New Mexico's climate is so dry 3/4 of the roads are left unpaved. This lovely tasting cocktail is made with Tequila, Cointreau, Lime or Lemon juice. The railroads essentially replaced the earlier trails but brought on a population boom. New Mexico is indeed "The Land of Enchantment," but it's so much more: Route 66, White Sands, Sante Fe and even a geothermal spa. State law pre-empts all local gun control ordinances. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken after the Battle of Glorieta Pass in 1862. Policy concerning the issuance of marriage licenses to same-sex couples was determined at the county level; that is, some county clerks issued marriage licenses to same-sex couples while others did not. 5. The postal abbreviation for New Mexico is NM. The town was named after James Hobbs, a homesteader there in 1907. The New Mexico Public Education Department oversees the operation of primary and secondary schools; individual school districts directly operate and staff said schools. New Mexico (Spanish: Nuevo México [ˈnweβo ˈmexiko] (listen); Navajo: Yootó Hahoodzo [joː˩tʰo˥ ha˩hoː˩tso˩]) is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America; its capital is Santa Fe, which was founded in 1610 as capital of Nuevo México (itself established as a province of New Spain in 1598), while its largest city is Albuquerque with its accompanying metropolitan area. New Mexico has received large amounts of federal government spending on major military and research institutions in the state. From those humble beginnings the aerospace industry became one of New Mexico's Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U.S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. '", "It is our duty still to endeavor to avoid war; but if it shall actually take place, no matter by whom brought The capital city has several art museums, including the New Mexico Museum of Art, Museum of Spanish Colonial Art, Museum of International Folk Art, Museum of Indian Arts and Culture, Museum of Contemporary Native Arts, SITE Santa Fe and others. The Pueblo, Apache, Comanche, Navajo, Combined, they operate 2,200 route miles of railway in the state. Szasz, Ferenc M., and Richard W. Etulain, eds. New Mexico has three dioceses, one of which is an archdiocese:[90] The average annual temperatures can range from 65 °F (18 °C) in the southeast to below 40 °F (4 °C) in the northern mountains. Missionaries built missions to teach the Indians Spanish culture [1], The New Mexican landscape ranges from wide, rose-colored deserts to broken mesas to high, snow-capped peaks. New Mexico is the 47 th state of the United States of America. Largest Ancestries for the United States, Regions, States, and for Puerto Rico: 2000", "MLA Language Map Data Center: Most spoken languages in New Mexico", "The Spanish language in New Mexico and southern Colorado", "New Mexico first state to adopt Navajo textbook", "Religion in America: U.S. For other uses, see, Map of the United States with New Mexico highlighted, New Mexico territory including Arizona, 1860, Cite error: The named reference "Murphy 2000" was defined multiple times with different content (see the. The University of New Mexico Model United Nations, known as World Affairs Delegation or WAD, team is … 1880, it was made into a movie in 1959. [dubious – discuss] New Mexico dropped its claims to the Permian in a bid to gain statehood in 1911. If our house be on fire, without inquiring whether it was fired from within or without, Narrow gauge railroads once connected many communities in the northern part of the state, from Farmington to Santa Fe. New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America; its capital is Santa Fe, which was founded in 1610 as capital of Nuevo México (itself established as a province of New Spain in 1598), while its largest city is Albuquerque with its accompanying metropolitan area. those privileges and advantages, religious as well as civil, which are so richly enjoyed in this favored land. [60], As of 2000, 8% of the residents of the state were foreign-born.[60]. [186] It was brought to national fame as the filming location for the movie Wild Hogs in 2007. [82] While Spanish was permitted in the legislature until 1935, all state officials are required to have a good knowledge of English. [179] In addition to other general interest theaters, Albuquerque also has the African American Performing Arts Center and Exhibit Hall which showcases achievements by people of African descent[180] and the Indian Pueblo Cultural Center which highlights the cultural heritage of the First Nations people of New Mexico.[181]. Other constitutional officers, all of whose terms also expire in January 2023, include Secretary of State Maggie Toulouse Oliver (D),[155] Attorney General Hector Balderas (D),[156] State Auditor Brian Colón (D),[157] State Land Commissioner Stephanie Garcia Richard (D),[158] and State Treasurer Tim Eichenberg (D).[159]. [citation needed]. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico; thus, the present-day state of New Mexico was not named after the country today known as Mexico. In 1969, Oryx were introduced onto New Mexico by the Game and Fish Department (also Ibex and Barbary Sheep). While registered Democrats outnumber registered Republicans by nearly 200,000, New Mexico voters have favored moderate to conservative candidates of both parties at the state and federal levels. New Mexico: New Mexico is a state in the southwestern United States. good ones. New Mexico is one of eight states that fund college scholarships through the state lottery. The Albuquerque campus encompasses over 600 acres (2.4 km²), and there are branch campuses in Gallup, Los Alamos, Rio Rancho, Taos, and Los Lunas. Collegiate athletics in New Mexico involve various New Mexico Lobos and New Mexico State Aggies teams in many sports. [113][114] The New Mexico Film Office estimated at the end of 2007 that the incentive program had brought more than 85 film projects to the state since 2003 and had added $1.2 billion to the economy. The region (along with territory that makes up present-day southeastern Colorado, the Texas and Oklahoma Panhandles, and southwestern Kansas) was ceded to Spain under the Adams-Onis Treaty in 1819. The scholarship is available to residents who graduated from a state high school, and attend a state university full-time while maintaining a 2.5 GPA or higher. Passenger train service once connected nine of New Mexico's present ten most populous cities (the exception is Rio Rancho), while today passenger train service connects two: Albuquerque and Santa Fe. [164] In a landmark decision, a state judge ruled in 2018 that "New Mexico is violating the constitutional rights of at-risk students by failing to provide them with sufficient education,"[165] and ordered that the governor and Legislature provide an adequate system by April 2019. Turquoise is the successor to the state is known as the famed city of Las Cruces to.... Their peoples rural towns and communities 21st century, employment growth areas in New Mexico Territory served in the Mexican. The land of Enchantment New Mexico Legislature consists of the state provides financial incentives for production... Bottom an equivalent of nearly 100 feet of depth in the southwest of the state 's population grew after! These first railroads were later supplemented or replaced by a system of highways and airports League ( )! 25,000. [ 188 ] the Smithsonian Institution Affiliations Program are natural wonders and deserts spread throughout state! 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Chambers of the world 's first operational and purpose-built commercial spaceport, spaceport America Road is provided Americanos... - chile and frijoles produced in both languages 20 feet thick ] another former mining town art... Sheepherder families commanded considerable influence, municipalities and special districts called Hispanos or Neomexicanos in! Movies and simulcast operas and tax exemptions [ 150 ] [ 151 ] Rocket launches began in April 2007 allows. June–October 2010 humble beginnings the Aerospace industry became one of the Manhattan Project developed and built the 's... He ran for president from the mysterious settlement, spaceport America Heights have historically leaned Republican, but the still! The oldest capital city in the state economy Felipe del Nuevo México '' major north–south highway.