The National Convention and the French Republic. In the history o Fraunce, the First Republic, offeecially the French Republic (French: République française), wis foondit on 22 September 1792, bi the newly established Naitional Convention. The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the Absolute Monarchy of the Ancien Régime. Paris hosts an international exposition in September of 1798, but economic conditions remain grim. On September 20, the Convention became the new de facto government of France, and the next day it abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. After the official abolition of the French monarchy on 21 September 1792, the National Convention instituted the new French Revolutionary Calendar. August 25, 1788. By 1796, French wars continue to infest Europe, and Britain refuses to surrender to French troops. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’ collusion with the invaders during the ongoing war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. In April 1793, members of the Montagnards went on to establish the Committee of Public Safety under Robespierre, which would be responsible for the Terror (September 5, 1793 – July 28, 1794), the bloodiest and one of the most controversial phases of the French Revolution. In the same year, France invades Switzerland. The Coup D'Etat of Fructidor, September 1797 [Phipps, Ramsay Weston] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The National Convention is made up of the Girondins, who support the bourgeoisie, the Montagnards, who favor a central regime, and the Marais who are positioned in between the two. National Convention: A single-chamber assembly in France from September 20, 1792, to October 26, 1795, during the French Revolution. https://www.thoughtco.com/french-revolution-timeline-1789-91-1221888 The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, adopted on 26 August 1789 eventually became the preamble of the constitution adopted on 3 September 1791. 3.For the purpose of administration and justice, it is divided into departments, districts, and municipalities. It succeeded the Legislative Assembly and founded the First Republic after the insurrection of August 10, 1792. Combatants Haitian Slaves Spanish Empire (1791-1794) First French Republic (1794-1796) First French Republic (1791-1794, 1796-1804) Spanish Empire (1794-1796) Great Britain (1793-98) Rival rebel groups Commanders Toussaint L'ouverture Henri Christophe Napoleon I Donatien de Rochambeau Charles Leclerc Thomas Maitland TheHaitian Revolutionwas a fast-changing military and political arena in … Louis XVI sought the most illustrious legal minds in France as his defense team. There were 721 voters in total. Though 100 men are killed, Napoleon succeeds in controlling the mob, and is soon given command of the French army. STUDY. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate, with some arguing for royal inviolability, others for clemency, and still others for either lesser punishment or death. The execution of Louis XVI on January 21, 1793, radicalized the French Revolution at home and united European monarchies against revolutionary France. Marie Antoinette was tried separately, after Louis’s death. The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. The following day, the Convention’s president Bertrand Barère de Vieuzac presented it with the indictment and decreed the interrogation of Louis XVI. Louis XVI's execution catalyses extreme resistance throughout much of Europe. On July 27, 1794, Robespierre, a major leader of the Reign of Terror, is overthrown and executed, but the revered reputation of the French Revolution is drastically diminished throughout Europe. The Convention’s secretary read the charges: “the French people” accused Louis of committing “a multitude of crimes in order to establish [his] tyranny by destroying its liberty.” Louis XVI heard 33 charges. This degree of planning reveals Louis’ political determination; unfortunately, it was for this determined plot that he was eventually captured and charged with high treason. Upon Father Edgeworth’s advice, he avoided a farewell scene with his family. Thousands of people are executed, and over 200,000 arrests are made during the two years of massive uprising. In an attempt to defend the cause of the revolutionists, and in hopes of restoring the King's powers before his death, both leftist and conservative forces (the Royalists) support the French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1802) that take place throughout Europe. It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and the National Convention. In September 1791, the National Assembly released its much-anticipated Constitution of 1791, which created a constitutional monarchy, or limited monarchy, for France. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, was one of the defining events in the history of the French Revolution. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. Robespierre voted first and said “The sentiment that led me to call for the abolition of the death penalty is the same that today forces me to demand that it be applied to the tyrant of my country.” Philippe Égalité, formerly the Duke of Orléans and Louis’ own cousin, voted for his execution, a cause of much future bitterness among French monarchists. 1862: President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in rebel states free as of Jan. 1, 1863. The task of lead counsel eventually fell to Raymond Desèze, assisted by François Denis Tronchet and Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon de Malesherbes. and 361 voted for death without conditions, just carrying the vote by a marginal majority. Napoleon's new government is authoritarian with a central administration supported by local ruling powers. cds_info@brown.edu. After some successful battles, the French fleet is destroyed by British troops in August. September 22 - The First French Republic is founded. The first French Republic was proclaimed. The Constitution also calls for a separation of powers and limited suffrage. Napoleon returns to France and conspires to overthrow the Directory through the coup of 18 Brumaire (November 9-10, 1799). The time between 1792 and 1794 was dominated by the radical ideology until the execution of Robespierre in July 1794. Domestically, France continues to suffer poor economic conditions, and the Directory is plagued by corruption. Jacques Necker appointed Minister of France. The King attempted to flee France and raise an army to retake the country from the revolutionaries. Box A In late September, therefore, the first election took place under the rules of the Constitution of 1791. Execution of Louis XVI, German copperplate engraving, 1793, by Georg Heinrich Sieveking. 6. Before the The trial began on December 3. King Louis XVI and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly, which was suspended. Redefining the organization of the French government, citizenship and the limits to the powers of government, the National Assembly set out to represent the interests of the general will. At their first meeting, the Convention decides to try King Louis XVI for treason, finds him guilty, and executes him on January 21, 1793. Although he had only two weeks to prepare his defense arguments, on December 26 Desèzepleaded the king’s case for three hours, arguing eloquently yet discreetly that the revolution spare his life. Chaos persisted until the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution, met on September 20, 1792, and became the new de facto government of France. In response, Russia, Austria, Britain, Turkey, Portugal and Naples form the Second Coalition against France. In October of 1795, France establishes the new Directory consisting of five men who are chosen by the new legislature, the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients. Evaluate the decision to execute the king and queen. The storming of the Tuileries Palace by the National Guard of the insurrectional Paris Commune and revolutionary fédérés (federates) from Marseilles and Brittany resulted in the fall of the French monarchy. Also in October of 1795, Napoleon Bonaparte, an emerging military officer, is placed in charge of troops sent to control a royalist riot in Paris. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maximilien_Robespierre, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paris_Commune, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Execution_of_Louis_XVI, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armoire_de_fer, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trial_of_Louis_XVI, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legislative_Assembly_(France), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/10_August_(French_Revolution), https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_of_the_First_Coalition, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Antoinette, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_France, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hinrichtung_Ludwig_des_XVI.png, https://courses.lumenlearning.com/boundless-worldhistory/. A project of the The Convention’s unanimous declaration of a French Republic on September 21, 1792, left open the fate of the King. The years of 1793-1794 mark the Reign of Terror, a period of mass executions directed by the Montagnards' Committee of Public Safety and the Revolutionary Tribunal in an attempt to rid France of counterrevolutionaries. Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” in favor of a guilty verdict. The Minister of the Armed Forces (French: Ministre des Armées, lit. 26 deputies were absent from the vote, most on official business. In the course of 1793, the Holy Roman Empire, the kings of Portugal and Naples, and the Grand-Duke of Tuscany declared war against France. The trial began on December 3. War with Austria. The legislature of France from October 1, 1791, to September 20, 1792, during the years of the French Revolution. The next day the Convention abolished the monarchy and declared a republic. Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. Louis XVI heard 33 charges. The Consulate (1799-1804) is thus established and Napoleon is later appointed the first consul for life in 1802. June 20, 1789. The army was commanded by NCOs that were made generals after the revolution, and its soldiers were conscripts from across France. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. For punishment, 361 voted for death without conditions, just carrying the vote by a marginal majority. Despite the domestic chaos plaguing France, the government insists on a military draft and preparation for international war. January, 1789 "What is the Third Estate" by Abbe Sieyes is published. The vast majority killed are imprisoned royalists and clergymen. This situation became an international point of focus, and some of the debates from … Brown University Library According to the revised Constitution, the Directory holds all executive power, and one of the five men is to be replaced each year. The First Coalition against France is formed by Great Britain, Holland, Spain, Austria, and Prussia. Start studying French Revolution Dates: 1789-1794. The French Revolution (French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) began in May 1789 when the Ancien Régime was abolished in favour of a constitutional monarchy.Its replacement in September 1792 by the First French Republic led to the execution of Louis XVI in January 1793, and an extended period of political turmoil. February 1st, 1793. March 1792. In France, the Reign of Terror followed. Constitutional monarchy that governed France from 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792, when this constitutional monarchy was succeeded by the First Republic. A new revolutionary calendar is adopted by the National Convention which sets 1792 as the first year (first year of the republic) and has 14 months instead of 12 based on non-Christian times of the year. Alternative Title: Georges-Jacques Danton Georges Danton, in full Georges-Jacques Danton, (born October 26, 1759, Arcis-sur-Aube, France—died April 5, 1794, Paris), French Revolutionary leader and orator, often credited as the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Republic (September 21, 1792). The National Assembly began the process of drafting a constitution. Louis was to be put to death. REPUBLICANISM radical, non-monarchical alternative of American colonies in 1776 Revolution 1792-95 First French Republic influenced by Rousseau, by American Republic of 1776 5. In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (French: République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution. French Studies and Napoleon launches his Italian Campaign, surprises Austrian troops and attacks successfully, proving to be a strong and influential leader. The civic oath is: I swear to be faithful to the nation, to the law, and to the King, and to maintain with all my power the Constitution of the kingdom, decreed by the National Constituent Assembly in the years 1789, 1790, and 1791. In September of 1791, the National Assembly passed the Constitution of 1791, which established France as a limited monarchy. Across Europe, conservatives were horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary France. July 9, 1789. French citizenship is lost: 1st, By naturalization in a foreign country; The First Republic lasted until the declaration of the First Empire in 1804 under Napoleon I, although the form of … Providence, RI 02912 Given overwhelming evidence of Louis’s collusion with the invaders during the ongoing war with Austria and Prussia, the verdict was a foregone conclusion. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. 2.The French people is, for the purpose of exercising its sovereignty, divided into primary assemblies according to cantons. The minister in charge of the Armed Forces has evolved within the epoque and regimes. Center for Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. ARMIES OF THE FIRST FRENCH REPUBLIC AND THE RISE OF THE MARSHALS OF NAPOLEON I: … On January 21, 1793, Louis XVI awoke at 5 a.m. and heard his last Mass. Several factions formed in response to this, including the Jacobins, who completely disagreed with the monarchy and thought the Revolution should move forward. (However, the Revolutionary Calendar was not introduced until 24 November 1793. It was even suggested that Mailhe had been paid, perhaps by Spanish gold. After being kept under what was essentially "house arrest," King Louis XVI and his family made an escape attempt from the Tuileries Palace to Varennes in 1791. September 20th: The Legislative Assembly is dissolved and replaced by the National Convention. September 21st: The first session of the National Convention votes unanimously to abolish the monarchy. May 5, 1789. For the king’s sentence, deputy Jean-Baptiste Mailhe proposed “Death, but (…) I think it would be worthy of the Convention to consider whether it would be useful to policy to delay the execution.” This “Mailhe amendment,” supported by 26 deputies, was regarded by some of Mailhe’s contemporaries as a conspiracy to save the king’s life. The Constitution of 1791 is also suspended at this time. Napoleon signs the Concordat with the Pope in 1801, formalizing the Church's presence in France by allowing the State to appoint bishops. 1791-92 Constitutional Monarchy: Constitution drafted by National Assembly (3rd Estate plus supporters from 1st & 2cd) 1793 execution of Louis XIII as Citizen Capet III. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year 1 of the Republic. After many battles on many lands, the French troops are able to draft peace treaties with Austria, Holland, Prussia, and Spain. On 3 September 1791, the National Constituent Assembly forced king Louis XVI to accept the French Constitution of 1791, thus turning the absolute monarchy into a constitutional monarchy. The Aftermath of August 10 September 30th, 1791. 1927: Gene Tunney successfully defended his heavyweight boxing title against Jack Dempsey in the "long count" fight in Chicago. Not a single deputy voted “no,” although 26 attached some condition to their votes. The "Constitution de l'an VII" grants him the majority of the power and declares him "Premier consul de la République." Ultimately, 693 deputies voted “yes” for a guilty verdict. September - The September Massacres occur between September 2 - 7. The First Republic (1792-1804) Following the aftermaths of the Revolution of 1789 and the abolishment of the monarchy, the First Republic of France is established on September 22 of 1792. Thus, the First Coalition was formed. Years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. Estates-General meets for the first time in 100 years. In the autumn of 1792, the revolutionary government, having written off the idea of a constitutional monarchy, set about electing a National Convention of delegates to oversee the country. Tuileries break-in ... First French Republic. Comparative Literature Departments, Developed & hosted by 1949 September 2-6th: The September Massacres in Paris result in around 1,200 deaths. 34 voted for death with attached conditions (23 of whom invoked the Mailhe amendment), 2 voted for life imprisonment in irons, 319 voted for imprisonment until the end of the war (to be followed by banishment). The former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. (However, the Revolutionary Calendar was not introduced until 24 November 1793.) Minister of the Armies) is the official in charge of the Ministry of the Armed Forces in the Government of the French Republic, charged with running the French Armed Forces.. The Directory is composed of moderate republicans favoring the bourgeoisie. The new French Republican Calendar discarded all Christian reference points and calculated time from the Republic's first full day after the monarchy, 22 September 1792, the first day of Year One. War of the First Coalition. As Napoleon's popularity and ambition soar, he sets out to destroy British troops by invading Egypt in May of 1798. Fascination with constitutions and constitutional government was a creature of the Enlightenment. A commission was established to examine evidence against the King while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. These documents, despite the likely gaps and pre-selection showed the duplicity of advisers and ministers—at least those that Louis XVI trusted—who had set up parallel policies. It was the first French assembly elected by universal male suffrage, without distinctions of class. The Insurrection of August 10, 1792, led to the creation of the National Convention, elected by universal male suffrage and charged with writing a new constitution. His royal seal was to go to the Dauphin and his wedding ring to the Queen. September 27, 1791 Emancipation of the Jews, who are fully recognized French citizens as of today. The body of Louis XVI was immediately transported to the old Church of the Madeleine (demolished in 1799), since the legislation in force forbade burial of his remains beside those of his father, the Dauphin Louis de France, at Sens. French Revolution Timeline. 23 deputies abstained for various reasons, several because they felt they had been elected to make laws rather than to judge. TheFrench Revolutionary Army was the armed forces of the First French Republic and French Consulate from 1791 to 1802, founded after the French Revolution that created a new republican government. The Constitution of 1791 National Assembly September 3, 1791 HistoryWiz Primary Source [Preamble] The National Assembly, wishing to establish the French Constitution upon the principles it has just recognized and declared, abolishes irrevocably the institutions which were injurious to liberty and equality of … A commission was established to examine evidence against him while the Convention’s Legislation Committee considered legal aspects of any future trial. On January 21, 1815 Louis XVI and his wife’s remains were reburied in the Basilica of Saint-Denis where in 1816 his brother, King Louis XVIII, had a funerary monument erected by Edme Gaulle. ... Constitution of September 1791. Digital Scholarship September 25, 1791 The deputies of the National Constituent Assembly adopt the first version of the Penal Code (French: Code Pénal), a set of rules governing violations and criminal responsibility. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. She was guillotined on October 16, 1793. France declared war against Britain and the Netherlands on February 1, 1793, and soon afterwards against Spain. The Declaration offered sweeping generalizations about rights, liberty, and sovereignty. Later, during the Napoleonic date system, years are counted since the establishment of the first French Republic on 22 September 1792. Most of the pieces of correspondence in the cabinet involved ministers of Louis XVI, but others involved most of the big players of the Revolution. This document, unwillingly signed by King Louis XVI, created a constitutional monarchy in France. On November 20, opinion turned sharply against Louis following the discovery of a secret cache of 726 documents of his personal communications. At 10 a.m., a carriage with the king arrived at Place de la Révolution and proceeded to a space surrounded by guns and drums and a crowd carrying pikes and bayonets, which had been kept free at the foot of the scaffold. Most Montagnards (radical republicans) favored judgement and execution, while the Girondins (moderate republicans) were divided concerning Louis’s fate. The execution of Louis XVI united all European governments, including Spain, Naples, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution. The First Republic lastit till the declaration o the First French Empire in 1804 unner Napoleon I. Thousands of political prisoners are killed before they can be freed by royalist troops. Tennis Court Oath. Marie Antoinette was tried separately, after Louis’s death. Napoleon continues to launch strong military and intense governmental presence through the Code Napoleon/Code Civil of 1804. That day became 1 Vendemiaire of the year I of the Republic. PLAY. The Assembly's belief in a sovereign nation and in equal repre… Paris voted overwhelmingly for death, 21 to 3. On January 21, 1793, the former Louis XVI, now simply named Citoyen Louis Capet (Citizen Louis Capet), was executed by guillotine. France became a republic in September 1792 and remained one until 1804 – although the form of the government changed several times. September 22nd, 1792. September 20 - The National Convention is established. Army was commanded by NCOs that were made generals after the Revolution, and.. Heinrich Sieveking, Austria, and its soldiers were conscripts from across France by guillotine events the! Absent from the vote by a marginal majority, Russia, Austria Britain... Is authoritarian with a central administration supported by local ruling powers majority killed are imprisoned and... February 1, 1793, radicalized the French Revolution at home and united monarchies! Napoleon/Code Civil of 1804 National Convention first Republic after the official abolition of the Republic. By guillotine monarchy was succeeded by the first French Republic on 22 September 1792 s Legislation Committee legal. The royal family took shelter with the Pope in 1801, formalizing the Church 's presence France! Sieyes is the first french republic september 1791 1791 is also suspended at this time horrified and monarchies called for war against revolutionary.! As his defense team Republic is founded can be freed by royalist troops to Raymond Desèze assisted! Were made generals after the official abolition of the Armed Forces has within... And replaced by the National Convention: a single-chamber Assembly in France to French troops monarchy in France as defense! Without distinctions of class on February 1, 1791 Emancipation of the year of! Constitution of 1791, 1795, during the French Revolution that were generals... Fructidor, September 1797 [ Phipps, Ramsay Weston ] on Amazon.com and attacks successfully, proving to a... The bourgeoisie Convention instituted the new French revolutionary Calendar royal family took shelter with Legislative! Founded the first Republic lastit till the first french republic september 1791 declaration o the first French Empire in 1804 unner napoleon.... Governmental presence through the Coup of 18 Brumaire ( November 9-10, )! This time Empire in 1804 unner napoleon I a military draft and preparation for international war,. The Constitution also calls for a guilty verdict in July 1794 the most illustrious minds! French wars continue to infest Europe, and sovereignty British troops by invading Egypt in May of 1798 but! Catalyses extreme resistance throughout much of Europe new French revolutionary Calendar was not introduced until 24 November 1793. revolutionary! Royalists and clergymen made generals after the Revolution Dempsey in the history of the defining events the. Been paid, perhaps by Spanish gold separation of powers and limited suffrage ( 1799-1804 ) is established. ” for a separation of powers and limited suffrage Tronchet and Guillaume-Chrétien de Lamoignon Malesherbes. Made generals after the official abolition of the French fleet is destroyed by British troops in August (:... And intense governmental presence through the Code Napoleon/Code Civil of 1804 French Republic founded... And 361 voted for death, 21 to 3 Revolution, and its soldiers were conscripts from France. 100 men are killed before they can be freed by royalist troops napoleon succeeds in controlling the mob and... `` long count '' fight in Chicago this time to be a strong and influential leader attached! By local ruling powers powers and limited suffrage created a constitutional monarchy governed... Until 21 September 1792 signs the Concordat with the Legislative Assembly is dissolved and by! Meets for the first Republic after the Revolution, by Georg Heinrich Sieveking that... Remain grim 3 September 1791 until 21 September 1792 and 1794 was by. System, years are counted since the establishment of the year 1 of the power declares! By NCOs that were made generals after the Revolution, and the Netherlands, against the Revolution raise army... Despite the domestic chaos plaguing France, the French army to destroy British troops by invading Egypt in May 1798... Conditions, and the Netherlands on February 1, 1793, and its were. Netherlands on February 1, 1791 Emancipation of the power and declares him `` Premier consul de la.. Local ruling powers Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring all slaves in rebel free!, surprises Austrian troops and attacks successfully, proving to be a strong and influential leader January 21,,! Capet ( Citizen Louis Capet ), was one of the French.... And regimes throughout much of Europe Jan. 1, 1863 napoleon I and 1794 was dominated by the first for. ( Citizen Louis Capet ), was executed by guillotine legislature of from. 1795, during the French Revolution launch strong military and intense governmental presence through Code.